Alph Keto Acids in Wound Healing

Sodium Pyruvate
Sodium pyruvate is an antioxidant that reacts directly with oxygen radicals like hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite, neutralizing them and thusly protecting DNA and other cellular components, such as glutathione, lipids and proteins. In macrophages, as well as other cell lines, sodium pyruvate regulates the production and level of inflammatory mediators including oxygen radical production and also regulates the synthesis of Nitric Oxide. Sodium pyruvate is administered to patients for a variety of medical disorders such as the treatment of Friedreich’s ataxia, and as a constituent in a therapeutic solution used in open heart surgery. It has been administered by several routes included intravenous, topical (for hyperkeratotic disorders, and oral (dietary supplements). In all cases, the administration of sodium pyruvate was shown to reduce inflammation and enhance healing. Oxygen radicals are involved in the induction and progression of malignancy and pyruvate, a known scavenger of oxygen radicals, has been implicated in cancer prevention. Pyruvate inhibited the growth of implanted tumors and reduced lung metastases, decreased the number of DNA breaks caused by H2O2 by 40%. Sodium pyruvate, and other alpha-keto acids are reactive oxygen radical antagonist,. . Thus, the ability of pyruvate to up regulate or down regulate Nitric Oxide levels in the body and to protect Nitric Oxide from other oxygen radicals, allows Nitric Oxide to deactivate NF-kappa B, which, in turn, will reduce NO levels and reduce inflammation. In HSV-1 infected cells, sodium pyruvate, in combination with other alpha keto acids, at the higher concentrations, reduced viral loads, increased the synthesis of Nitric Oxide and in combination with antiviral agents, eliminated the virus completely from the infected cells.

Alpha-keto-isovalerate metabolic background
Alpha-keto-isovalerate (CH3)2CHCOCOOH is a fundamental intermediate in protein synthesis, i.e., the biosynthesis of the amino acids leucine, valine and their metabolism. Keto-isovalerate inhibits pain, erythema, itching and swelling. It is known, to react with H2O2 to produce isobutyric acid and seems to reduce prostaglandins. In virally infected cells, keto isovalerate will inhibit amino acid up take by the cells, inhibiting the virus from producing a protein coat.

Keto-butyrate is a superior moisturizing agent over all the other keto acids. It reacts with H2O2 to produce propionic acid which has been shown to be an anti-fungal agent and can be used with other keto acids to enhance the moisture in tissues.

Keto-glutarate is taken up by neurons and fibroblasts and therein increases neuron survival and collagen deposition by fibroblasts. In combination with pyruvate, this keto acid produced the greatest neuron survival and regeneration. It reacts with H2O2 to produce succinic acid which inhibits mast cells from releasing histamines.

Keto-caproate will disrupt cellular membranes and mucus. It reacts with H2O2 to produce valerate, a food source. It can be used with oxaloacetate to inhibit cancer cells from growing while at the same time allowing normal cells to grow.

Keto-adipate dissolves excess mucus. It reacts with H2O2 to produce glutaric acid.

Oxaloacetate is part of the Krebs citric acid cycle and is found in the mitochondria of cells. We are the first to show that oxaloacetate inhibits keloid formation, angiogenesis, and excess infiltration of leukocytes. Its properties can be used in burns to prevent progressive burn ischemia due to thermal injuries which causes delayed tissue loss in surrounding healthy tissue. It reacts with H2O2 to produce malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, which effectively inhibits respiration and the further production of H2O2. When we used it in combination with keto-isovalerate or pyruvate on burns, excess
WBC infiltration is reduced and healing is enhanced. It can be used to treat patients undergoing radiation therapy to inhibit regrowth of the tumor, while at the same time healing normal cells.

The ability of sodium pyruvate and other alpha ketp acids to regulate nitric oxide levels can be used to reduce inflammation, or can be used to treat infections and tumors.